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一中大语文

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古诗文中“互文”修辞探析(王礼平)  

2013-05-03 11:24:53|  分类: 诗话库 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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古诗文中“互文”修辞探析(王礼平) - 一中大语文 - 一中大语文

 

古诗文中“互文”修辞探析

王礼平
       

互文即“互文见义”,是指上下文义互相交错,互相渗透,互相补充,综合起来表达一个完整句子意思的修辞方法。其特点是:上文里含有下文将要出现的词,下文里含有上文已经出现的词。它是古代汉语中常用的一种修辞方法,运用互文这种修辞,可以使文章结构工整,语言交相辉映,内容更加丰富,表达更为深刻。由于“互文”这种修辞手法在理解上具有隐蔽性,特别是一些“互文”现象往往被语句表面的意思所掩盖,给同学们理解句子大意增加了难度,极易造成穿凿附会,望文生义。现把这种修辞在中学出现的情况进行整理和分析,相信对我们的教与学都将具有极为重要的意义。
        中学教材中,常见的互文形式有以下几种:
        一、单句互文 
        是指同一个句子中有些词语相互映衬呼应,合而见义。如:“主人下马客在船,举酒欲饮无管弦”(《琵琶行》)一句中,“主人”与“客”互补,意为主人下了马来到船上,客人也下了马来到船上。不然,主人在岸客人在船,这样举酒饯行就可笑了。又如王昌龄《出塞》中的“秦时明月汉时关”是令人津津乐道的互文名句,表面上是说“秦时”的“明月”,“汉时”的“关”,但在意义上却是合指,互文见义的,即明月仍是秦汉时的明月,山关仍是秦汉时的山关,以此来映衬物是人非,并非明月属秦关属汉。故此句可译为:“秦汉时的明月,秦汉时的关。”
        二、对句互文
        是指上下句互相隐含词语,两相映衬,文义呼应。这种形式的互文最为常见,理解时必须把前后两句结合起来。如:“叫嚣乎东西,隳突乎南北”(柳宗元《捕蛇者说》)句中“叫嚣”、“隳突”互文;“东西”、“南北”互文,可理解为“叫嚣、隳突乎东西南北”,亦即“到处叫嚷,到处骚扰”。只有这样理解,才能充分显示出“悍”吏来乡里征收赋税时那种喧闹、恐怖的气氛,揭示了老百姓生活的不安定。又如: “将军百战四蝎癝TRONG><

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<" size="4" face="微软雅黑" >互文即“互文见义”>